Wabanaki Studies > Wabanaki Lessons > Timelines

Wabanaki Studies: A Teaching Timeline

An annotated timeline of events central to the history of the Native Peoples of Maine.

Please contribute annotated dates to this timeline by completing my Feedback form.  Articles about current issues can be found in Maine Newsstand, a database of Maine newspaper articles available to Maine residents at MARVEL!, and at the Maine tribal websites.

Use this timeline along with museum timelines you will find at the Timelines listing.

Date

(BP=Before the Present)

General
Treaty

Abenaki

(Wabanaki + Western Abenaki)

Penobscot
Passamaquoddy
Maliseet
Mi'kmaq
11,000-10,500 BP
Paleo-Indians arrive  

    The retreat of glacial ice occurs over time, exposing land, creating fertile environments and waterways.Many Wabanakis, as other Indian nations, do not accept the Bering Strait migration theory. It is important to read the individual Creation Stories.

See: Sebago-Presumpscot Anthropology Project for this and later periods. There is a wonderful set of glaciation images at this site as well.

5000 BP
Red Paint people       These may or may not have been the ancestors of the Wabanaki.  University of Maine has a good overview site.
3700 BP
New population arrives from the SE       This is driven by climate change and the migration of mammals, such as deer. The change reverses itself periodically.
3500-3000 BP
Red Paint people and other older peoples seem to decline            
2800 BP
Ceramic pottery, wigwams, canoes            
1100-1000 AD
Norse explorations, possible settlements??   There is a controversy over the Maine "penny"
1400
First agriculture in Maine - southwestern Maine to Kennebec River - see The Myth of the Limits of Horticulture (and following articles) - Europeans map and name Native peoples   Abenaki   Etchemin Etchemin Souriquois
late 1400's
Fishing crews from Europe along the coast  

     1497 - Sebastian Cabot
1524 - Giovanni da Verrazano
European myth of Norumbega - rich Native kingdom in what is now New England - this is false, but it brings explorers, who find a fortune in fur - see The Myths of Norumbega

See Peoples Distribution Before 1600

1570-1610
Metal kettles and muskets are available through fur trade; beginning of the change in Native economy  

    Beaver is almost extinct in Europe. Trading for pelts is an active part of Indian economies. By the end of this period, beaver are almost gone from some coastal areas, affecting hunting grounds and patterns.
Some Native economies become increasingly dependent on European trade goods. Europeans adopt many Native foods and clothing styles. Latter settlements will also adopt Native agricultural methods.
In addition to adopting trade goods, Wabanakis learn to sail European trade ships, establishing their own trade routes. Later, they will be able to wage war on the seas as well.
Native diasporas and migrations have begun - see Wawenoc Diasporas for an overview covering Eastern Maine

late 1500's
Beginnings of epidemics in Nova Scotia; Wabanaki population estimated at 32,000 in Maine & Maritimes    1586 - Typhus epidemic      French missionaries are active in Upper St. John river valley up to 95% of the Micmac population dies
1605

Champlain sails up the Penobscot (for France)

English Captain Weymouth captures 5 Wabanakis

 

 Samuel de Champlain sees Indians growing corn, beans and squash; he trades with the Penobscot.

One of Weymouth's captives returns after two years and warns the Wabanakis not to trust the English.

Estimated population of Wabanakis in Maine & the Maritimes: 32,000

There are coastal anchorages, for trading and not permanent, along the Maine coast. One of them is in Georgetown.

1607-1630

Coastal tribes vie for control of fur trade;

Most of Maine "Granted" to companies or individuals by French or English kings (overlapping Grants - see Maine Dirigo maps)

 

1607 - Popham Colony - Penobscots become strong through fur trade - Tarrateen War between Penobscots and rival Micmacs and Maliseets
1610 - baptism of Mi'kmac chief Membertou into Roman Catholic religion
Micmac are better equipped for war because of established ties to Europeans- 1616 - Micmac victory - they sweep down into Massachusetts, but encounter Plague

1614 - Captain John Smith encounters while Penobscots exploring NE coast - the coast is too settled already so he travels further south to find a plantation (large farm) site.

 1616-1619 - "Great Dying" - plague, smallpox, cholera, measles, whooping cough kill 75%; some survivors move east and to Canada, further reducing productive population; epidemics continue until 1768, with minor epidemics through the 1800's; not only are men killed, but the women and elders who are necessary to the continuation of culture.

1621 - Plymoth Colony - read Nathaniel Philbrick's Mayflower for an excellent summary of this turning point and the next 50 years.

French traders move trade centers to St. Lawrence Valley due to dwindling fur supplies - this creates "trade lines" whose identity is important through the War of 1812.

French and English fight over lands between Massachusetts and Quebec - fur trade between Kennebec and St. Croix rivers much diminished; Mohawks threaten; Iroquois make alliance with Dutch (against "Eastern NE Indians")

1637
Wabanaki have firearms (muskets, soon replaced by early rifles)  

Firearms become a trade item, used by both French and English to gain allegiance of Wabanaki; alcohol is traded, causing some Wabanakis to suffer when furs are traded for liquor. The English used alcohol to "affect" treaty discussions.

French missions established after 1646.

1651
Massachusetts Bay Colony extends its land charter, annexing all lands north to Casco Bay   Maine becomes a District of the Massachusetts colony - land grants continue - Native tribes and kinship groups are not consulted
1662-1669
War: Penobscot vs. Mohawk   Penobscots suffer - Old Town settlement
1664-1667
  Treaties of Brenda - non-agression between Dutch, British, French & Penobscots

 Penobscots cede some lands to France, other small alliances made due to growing Wabanaki anger and unease over English hunger for land; trade further diminished

1675-1678
King Philip's War(southern) and in Maine (First Anglo-Wabanaki War) - ends 50 years of peace with English colonists negotiated by Squanto; severe food shortages due to burned land and displacement from lands; Wabanakis fight each other.  1676 - initial steps to form a Wabanaki Confederacy;
Moog's Treaty of 1676 - not accepted by many Wabanakis;
Treaty of 1678 recognizes Wabanaki sovereignty

Many Indians from Mass. flee to NY and Canada in "The Great Dispersal" - others join the Abenaki (various tribes)

See discussion at The Lake Regions of Maine.

The Pennacocks are destroyed as a nation. The "peace" opens up Maine for settlement by English

Wabanakis remain generally neutral in French/English (with allies of other Native nations) struggles, but at times support French

1676 - English expand settlements into Penobscot lands - all English settlements in Southern ME destroyed

1678 - Penobscot-English alliance for peace (non-aggression) - Penobscot agree to let English settlements remain but not to allow them to expand; payment of corn by settlers to Indians is part of treaty (settlers have taken the best farm land along the river valleys)

As settlements expand over the next 100 years, ancestral forests (white pine, ash, cedar) are destroyed. The resulting change in animal and plant ecology greatly affects the Wabanakis.

1688-1759
"French and Indian" Wars or Territorial Wars  

See Usurpation

Over the next 50 years, many Abenakis move to Canada to avoid genocide (by angry English), forming a "loose confederation" with the French, who they initially trust due to the French willingness to assimilate and understand some Wabanaki culture. In reality, many tribes exercise an on-off and independent war against the English. Resources in Canada are not sufficient for the new population. About halfway through, greater numbers and better war technology turn the tide in favor of the English.

1689 - English "scalp bounty" on "Eastern Indians" of all ages, men and women - this becomes increasingly higher - Indians interpret this as a desire to destroy them entirely.  This, and the consistent taking of their lands, are reasons for war. The English think Natives are siding with the French in a war about the conquest of a territory. They refuse to accept any "aboriginal right" to the lands.

Jesuits convert many Wabanakis in Canada and follow them when they begin to return to Maine. French supply them with firearms to buffer English attacks. Jesuits urge Wabanakis not to trade with English ("heretics"), but also see trade as harmful to Wabanakis. [English settlers and governors are largely Protestant and a Catholic-Protoestant conflict continues in Britain.]

Over-trading of furs causes a "glut" of fur on the European market and prices drop, hurting Wabanaki economy further after the French restrict trade (to force prices back up).

For the next 100 years or more, Land Grants are made of ancestral lands - find documents and maps at Windows on Maine

Native population grows, absorbing migrations of Natives fleeing British in Massachusetts colony. Traditional subsistence food sources diminish due to burning of lands, settlement, and war.

1688-1699
 King William's War (Second Anglo-Wabanaki War) - English break Treaty of 1678 by expanding and not making payments of corn; Wabanaki crops destroyed

 Penobscot-French alliance at the urging of the priests
Treaty of 1690 is unfavorable to Wabanakis

Phip's Treaty of 1693 - subjugates Wabanakis and allows for English settlement on "deeded" land - signed by Madockawando but not accepted by many kinship groups;
Treaty of 1699 is same as 1693

1687 - Castine Mission 
1688 - French mission is established at current sight of Bangor;
1691 - Penobscots participate in massacre at York settlement;
1693 - Penobscots try but fail to arrange a treaty;
1699 - From English perspective, Wabanakis acknowledge in treaty they are subjects of the Crown and  withdraw many land claims; Wabanakis pledge neutrality;

Many Wabanakis resent exploitation by French, who urge war but do not provide sufficient support or supplies

1701
   Treaty of 1701 between Iroquois, French, Catholic Native Nations     Great Council of Fire - Formalization of Wabanaki Confederacy/Alliance as a result of English aggression and expansion of settlements - wampum belt with four white triangles on a blue background used to rally tribes for fighting - French supply arms to Wabanakis, using them as a buffer to prevent British expansion into Canada (Quebec and Acadia) and northern New England - this support of Native tribes for political reasons continues through the War of 1812.
1703-1713
 Queen Anne's War (Third Anglo-Wabanaki War) - Canada's governor declares war on English

1713 - Treaty of Utrecht - French cede Acadia (Nova Scotia and Wabanaki land) to England;
1713 - Treaty of Portsmouth - English and Wabanakis - mutual respect for territory promised, rights to "lands held" as of 1693 - (document is available at Library of Congress)

    Micmacs are not part of Treaty of Portsmouth; 
Many Indians return to lands;
Wabanaki maintain sovereignty over lands, denying provisions of treaty that they respect English law and British authority in Acadia;
French and English offer trade "deals" and gifts to gain Wabanaki support and trade goods;
English continue to produce "land deeds" allowing them to expand settlements;
In spite of conversion by French missionaries, Wabanakis begin to mistrust French
1722-1727

 1722 declared by Shute

1724 - Dummer's War (Forth Anglo-Wabanaki War) highlighted by murder of Jesuit Father Rasles/Rale, who has urged Penobscots to fight to protect homelands

 1725 - Treaty of Peace and Friendship between Penobscot, Micmac, Maliseet and British Crown - English agree not to disturb Wabanaki hunting and fishing territories (in exchange for loyalty)

1726 - Dummer's Treaty

  1724 - English destroy villages, including Old Town and Norridgewock (massacre women and children). Indians disperse, but retaliate by attacking settlements on lower Kennebec  - English determination to exterminate Wabanakis is evident - scalp bounties increase in value - English pursue Abanaki into current New Hampshire, many migrate to French territory (later returning)

In Dummer's Treaty, English recognize Wabanaki ownership of lands in Maine, but not Micmac and Maliseet township of lands in Nova Scotia - after the Revolution, Non-natives took ownership of Micmac lands on coast of Nova Scotia in violation of this treaty - Penobscots promise to join English vs. other tribes - download lesson plan in .pdf format from Maine Memory - this lesson plan (.pdf download) deals with points of view re. the treaty

Dummer's Treaty is affirmed in 1735 by Governor Belcher (for Massachusetts) and again in 1749

1744-1749
 King George's War (Fifth Anglo-Wabanaki War) - France declares war on Britain - fighting spreads to colonies in America      Penobscot population is estimated at 700 - English population reaches 12,000
Penobscots attempt to remain neutral but eventually join fighting against British
 

  English declare war on Micmacs and Maliseets, who attack British outposts in Canadian Maritimes;
1746 - one third of Micmac population dies in epidemic;
British bring over 2,500 settlers to MicMac and Maliseet lands in the Maritimes and establish a colonial government

1749
 

Penobscot treaty with English;
Abanaki and Maliseet sign peace treaty with British re: Nova Scotia
1752 & 1753 - Treaties with English (except for Micmac/Abenaki)

  English agree not to settle above tidewater and not to sell alcohol to Natives Maliseet celebrated the "treaty" with a war dance;
Cornwall offers a bounty on Micmac scalps
1754-1763
 French & Indian War (Seven Years War)

1760 (Boston) - treaty between Massachusetts and remaining Natives in Maine territory

Treaty between Passamaquoddy and St. John's Maliseets and British Crown ;
1763 -Treaty of Paris - France gives Canada territory to England

 1755 - Massachusetts declares war on Abenaki tribes, Penobscots asked to move settlements - they refuse and retain their lands without a formal treaty. Proclamation of 1755 sets bounty on Penobscot scalps (download lesson in .pdf format from Maine Memory)

Western Indians migrate to Canada

  Royal Proclamation of 1763 recognizes Native land rights; Wabanakis can keep land not sold or granted to the English by the end of the war, but it also opens most of New England for British settlement;
Maliseet ancestral lands on St. Johns settled by British.
Hunting, trapping, fishing rights in Canada are guaranteed as well as recognition of land ownership;
Acadians expelled from Maritimes along with MicMacs who had intermarried.

1775
  Treaty of Watertown Under Chief Joseph Orono, Penobscot territorial claims from Penobscot River Head of Tide (Old Town) and upriver, 6 miles on either side, are ratified by Massachusetts Provincial Council - this claim is later ignored by MA
1776
 American Revolution begins

1776 - Maliseet and Micmac treaty with United States follows meeting at Watertown

1779 - "Mickmack" treaty with King George (peace, non-alliance with Americans)

   Penobscots side with the rebellious colonists against the English or remain neutral

 Some Passamaquoddies join British - most side with colonists

General Washington makes extensive promises, including preservation of hunting land and rights

 1776 - Maliseets in St. Johns valley petition British for protection of their hunting rights in ancestral lands (granted) - they do not pledge to support in war

By the terms of the 1776 treaty, 600 men are to fight "for the American cause" under Washington, and the Passamaquoddy are to be formally urged to give their support (they do - many join the rebels) - most Native fighters do so in Maine

Mi'kmaq's promised in treaty security of ancestral hunting and fishing rights

 

 

post Rev.
        The demand for beaver in Europe decreases and the "price" for pelts drops. Indian trappers are outnumbered by non-Natives, who begin to use steel traps. Fur trade ends in 1808. Wabanakis are again faced with starvation and a change in their economy. Crafts based upon some trade goods (quill decoration, beading) and basketmaking become economically profitable. 
During and after the war, many Wabanakis migrate to Canada - later historians label them "extinct" - tribal and cultural artifacts and stories begin to disappear
Over the next 60 years, land grants are made to settle Maine on ancestral lands - see Map (requires IE)
1783
After Revolution the boundary is drawn between Canada and the US on the 45th parallel  Peace Treaty of 1983

The boundary to the north and east cuts right through Wabanaki ancestral territory. They were not consulted, even though they supported both sides in the war.

1785: Acadian settlers take Maliseet land in exchange for promise to protect Natives - over the next 50 years, Maliseets gradually migrate from ancestral lands (http://www.upperstjohn.com/history/natives.htm)

By 1789, Micmac homelands in Nova Scotia are taken from them, resources (lumber, moose, etc.) on the way to being destroyed

1786
Massachusetts holds public lottery, auctioning off land Down East  

Passamaquoddy lands are sold.  All-in-all, they lose eventually 80% of ancestral territory by land sale and charter.

1786: Penobscots bargain to "cede" much ancestral land above tidewater in Penobscot Valley - an agreement is made with General Lincoln for goods in exchange for land (for townships) - settlement increases - Penobscots do not cede land and attempt to stop surveying of land on either side of the river - this is not a formal agreement until after 1796

1788
Slavery is abolished in Maine    
1789
Massachusetts passes a law prohibiting teaching Native Americans how to read and write    
1790
Federal Trade and Non-Intercourse  Act passed by US Congress to protect Indian land transfers/sale  

Ownership of Indian land can not be transferred without consent of Congress. RE: Land sales in Maine, it is interpreted by Masssachusetts in this way: This Act does not apply to Wabanaki because they remain under the jurisdiction of Commonwealth of Massachusetts (later Maine). Federal Indian policies, including services and financial assistance, also do not apply. 

"In 1790, the U.S. Congress had passed the Non-Intercourse Act that declared the federal government must ratify all treaties between the States and Indian Nations. Because Congress never ratified the 1794 and 1796 treaties with the Maine tribes, the tribes successfully negotiated the Maine Indian Land Claims Settlement Act in 1980." Abbe Museum

1793
Federal law passed by Continental Congress prohibiting private citizens from buying Indian lands   This law is broken repeatedly, with no penalty. Often tribal security and "free passage through the land" is an important part of the settlement. This too is revoked.
1794
 

 Jay Treaty between English, Americans, First Nations peoples - grants unrestricted passage and free trade over artificial borders (see Article III);
Treaty with MA gives Passamaquoddy lands in Maine but is never ratified by Congress

   

 Reservations established in Maine - great loss of ancestral land - agreement is negotiated by John Allen, a loyal friend of Passamaquoddy, but even so "it is the best they can get"

 

1816 - Indian Township reservation

   
1796
  Penobscot treaty with MA - give up lands in exchange for salt, corn, cloth, ammunition and other goods   Old Town reservation established - other islands on 30-mile stretch of Penobscot; followed by other treaties ceding ancestral lands - none are ratified      
1812-1815
War of 1812  

Micmac remain neutral, other tribes vary in involvement, generally on the side of the British who capture most of the East coast of Maine

A proposal is made by an alliance of Native tribes to create an Indian State south and west of Lake Erie - this is rejected by the War Hawks, who wish to expand American lands into the west and Canada for settlement;
Native land claims are not heeded

1815
  Treaty of Ghent

  After War of 1812, the treaty returns to Indians land occupied in 1811, in effect further reducing the reservation and territorial lands - see Article IX, http://members.tripod.com/~war1812/treaty.html or at Yale University

There is no Native representation at the treaty talks. "After the War of 1812 ended, the surviving American, Canadian and British soldiers all went home, but many native warriors and their families could not since they no longer had any to return to." http://www.galafilm.com/1812/e/background/nat_peace.html 

  
1818
  Penobscot Treaty with Commonwealth of Massachusetts re: lands, confirming 1796 treaty   This treaty can be viewed and downloaded from Windows on Maine - used Advanced Search for Indians of North America Treaties - treaty refers to 1796 granting of land & payments to be made by Commonwealth for lands- sets aside lands for "perpetual use" of Penobscots and details payments to be made yearly to tribe - Penobscot treaty confirms 4 townships, islands above Old Town and Old Town, as well as 2 acres to be purchased in Brewer (where Penobscots are to be taught to farm);
Lesson using the documents
 
1820
Maine becomes a state Penobscot Treaty with Maine transfers terms of 1818 treaty  

Penobscots and Passamaquoddies become "wards" of Maine with reservations at Indian Island, Pleasant Point and Peter Dana Point - Indians are disenfranchised citizens and lose sovereignty over reservation lands; lands sold and leased by the state without tribal consent - see "treaty" document available from Windows on Maine.

Lands in Aroostook County and Piscataquis County opened for settlement - loss of hunting territories
1821-1839
Maine harvests lumber on Passamaquoddy land, agents have trouble enforcing lumbering regulations on Penobscot land  

1821- Indian Agents assigned by State - they distribute funds and goods to tribes, families and individual for the next 150 years, often allowing much less than necessary for subsistence

State also authorizes sale/lease of Passamaquoddy lands without authorization or payment to the Nation.

Trust funds established for Passamaquoddies and Penobscots by State - sale of timber, hay and shore rights go into fund - interest is to be paid to tribes, but is not for 110 years (until 1969).

1824 - Federal  Bureau of Indian Affairs established; Passamaquoddies receive (limited) Federal funds for schools to "civilize and educate" Indian children and provide for needs of adults (allocated by Reverand or Priest, depending on who was given them)

1829 - Penobscots petition to sell two lower townships

1830 - Indian Removal Act begins the forced relocation of most Nations east of the Mississippi - does not affect the Wabanakis

1823
Penobscots given non-voting seats in the House    
1831
Marshall Decision (Supreme Court)  

Indian sovereignty is now qualified; nations are no longer "sovereign foreign nations," but "domestic dependent nations" that retain all sovereign powers except those specifically taken away by Congress; relationship to the federal government "was as a ward to his guardian" establishing duty of federal government to act for benefit of Indians; Bureau of Indian Affairs established; Indians have no input into these decisions.

Due to treaties signed with Massachusetts and Maine (but not with the federal government), Penobscots and Passamaquoddies are exempt from this relationship, "state Indians," along with Micmacs and Maliseets in Maine. This remains true until 1979, when Passamaquoddies and Penobscots gain the same federal rights as other Indians (including $) and state interference in tribal government stops.

Income is earned for the next 100 years by sales of crafts to non-Natives, lumbering, ice harvesting, guiding, and "shows" for non-Natives and tourists.

1833
Land sales  

Sale by Penobscots of 4 townships (over 95% of currently held land - referred to in 1818 treaty) - purchase price of $50,000 to be placed in interest-earning trust (or goes to Indian Agents) - they retain as Reservation islands in the Penobscot River
Lesson using the documents and tracing this history of this land sale

1842

 Border between Canada and US established. US recognizes settler ownership of Native lands;

Passamaquoddies given a non-voting seat in the House

Maine courts state necessity of subjection of Indians "to our parental control; in disregard of some...principles of the rights of man." A-21

       Passamaquoddy ancestral lands are split - sacred Qonasqamkuk is now in Canada  Ancestral lands are split by boundary; disputes with Passamaquoddy  
1852
  Passamaquoddy Indian Treaty of "peace and harmony" between tribes   These treaties can be viewed online (original and transcript) at Windows on Maine - use Advanced Search (Land Disputes or Indians of North America Treaties) - treaty among the Passamaquoddy sets up government and meetings with Indian Agent, treaty with Commonwealth also sets up government and declares "peace and harmony"    
1868
Indian Act - Canada         Defined Indian band membership and protected reserved lands - in 1876 Micmac had to relinquish band membership to become Canadian ("enfranchisement" was thought to be desired) - definition of membership is gradually narrowed by revisions to law to 1900, then expanded gradually; 1981 Act recognizes sovereignty - 1997 Act guarantees it
1887

Dawes Act - USA

summary
Native Commentary

  This act did not directly affect the Maine nations - it was aimed at distribution of Indian Territory lands (especially in Oklahoma) to settlement and farming. It is, however, indicative of the national temperament with regard to the Indians: on the one hand, it represents a desire for redress of "unfairness" and on the other hand it represents the continued land aggression and lack of understanding on behalf of the government and the non-Native population (which at this time and for the next 40 years includes large-scale European immigration)
1937
Maine recognizes aboriginal rights to hunt and fish     Penobscots and Passamaquoddies offered free hunting and fishing licenses    
1950
      Bridge connects Indian Island to Old Town, giving Penobscot access to jobs (mills) and learning  Beginning of period of economic depression on reservation, which continues for over 20 years - few jobs on the reservation - many leave for shipyards  Mechanical potato harvester introduced - loss of Maliseet jobs  
1954
 Maine is the last state to give Native the vote in Federal Elections       As members of "recognized tribes," Penobscots and Passamaquoddies can vote in national elections    
1956
Canadian government grants citizenship to aboriginals          

For Micmacs, this is followed by sovereignty (control of affairs) in reserves
All aboriginals given right to vote in 1959

1957
 Beginning of what becomes the Settlement Act        John Peters finds a copy of the 1794 treaty between the Passamaquoddy Tribe and the State of Massachusetts showing 6,000 missing acres and initiating land claims suits.    
1959-78
 Adoption and Boarding School  

Indian Adoption project - many Indian children removed from homes and placed in non-Native foster or adopted - by 1974 it is estimated that 25% of Indian children have been removed from their homes and are being raised by non-Natives;
1978 - Indian Child Welfare Act protects Native children

Period in which many leave reservations to seek wage labor in industrial areas. By the end of this period, media exposure to Civil Rights activism is causing Wabanakis to question "status quo," beginning a period of activism and renewed desire for sovereignty.

1965
Maine Department of Indian Affairs established     Penobscots and Passamaquoddies gain economic, health and social benefits     Benefits and vote are not available to Maine Maliseets and Micmacs.
1967
Members of recognized tribes can vote in state elections     Penobscots and Passamaquoddies can vote in state elections.
1973
 Maine Micmacs and Maliseets are recognized by the state         Benefits, services and vote are gained
1980
 Land Claims Settlement Acts  Treaties made after 1790 were not approved by Congress and therefore not legal.  

  Penobscots and Passamaquoddies receive $27 million trust fund (13.5 each) and $26.8 million each to buy 300,000 acres of land (to split evenly), in exchange for giving up land claims. Maine requires that they also give up Federal rights and recognition, placing some aspects of reservation under state control (see Marshall Decision). State services to Indians are terminated (to be assumed by tribes), including Department of Indian Affairs.
See The Wabanakis of Maine & the Maritimes, D-98

 

 Houlton Band of Maliseets established and federally recognized - $900,000 to buy 5,000 acres; other Maliseets are not included and lose state services

 Micmacs are left out of the Settlement Act and lose state benefits.

In Canada, Micmacs gain recognition of treaty rights in 1982, section 35 of the Constitution Act

post-Settlement Act
   

Post-Settlement Acts economic activities include blueberry farms, a cement company, and biomass energy plants (Passamaquoddy) and initiatives for conservation and economic development (e.g. BNAS interest)

Cultural revivals due to return of retired elders to reservations - revival of tribal languages, oral tradition, traditional skills

1991
Federal recognition of Aroostook Band Micmacs           $900,000 to buy land and federal benefits
1997
Penobscot Nation v. EPA     Penobscot Nation wins partial victory, appealing for stronger standards limiting discharge of dioxins into Penobscot River - EPA disregards principle that Penobscot fish consumers are a significant sub-population - tribal fight for sovereignty over quality of water flowing through their lands continues to this day    
2001
LD 291  

An Act to Require Teaching of Maine Native American History and Culture in Maine's Schools

See: LD 291: Essential Understandings..

2002
Domtar Industries returns Gordon's Island to the Passamaquoddy Nation    

Read about the return.

Read a letter about the 1851 small pox epidemic at Windows on Maine

   
November, 2003
 Casino referendum      Defeat of Passamaquoddy and Penobscot proposal to open casino in southern Maine (Ballot Question 3). See Chief Barry Dana's speech    
2005

Decision to close BNAS (Brunswick Naval Air Station) by 2011

Penobscots and Passamaquoddies pursue economic independence - make proposals for use of some of the public lands

   

Penobscots and Passamaquoddies submit proposals to Federal government and Brunswick for use of some of the lands and buildings (not for casinos)

Passamaquoddy Nation seeks approval for referendum vote on racino on tribal lands

Penobscot Nation opens mail-order pharmacy, PIN Rx

  December - Aroostic Band of Micmacs win a victory in court freeing them from some provisions of the Land Claims Settlement
2006

January: Governor vetoes bill allowing referendum

House defeats bill allowing Passamaquoddy to build casino on tribal land; petitions to require referendum fall short

         
2007            
2008            

 

 

drawing of waves

Elizabeth Sky-McIlvain
Updated 8/3/07